Christian evangelists were intimately involved in the colonial process in southern Africa. Accessed on 2012/12/10. Christianity and Islam are the cause of almost all the wars and tribal conflicts in Africa today. Once it was introduced to Africa, Christianity slowly spread from Alexandria to Ethiopia. He divided this into three categories: commerce, Christianity, and civilization (meaning good government, education etc).". International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church 8(4), 275-289. Mtuze (2003:1) confirms: "The blatant denial of African religion was coupled with an attitude evinced by some of the colonizers and missionaries that the people they found in Africa and in South Africa in particular were not actually people. Woodberry & Shah (2004:53) note: "Lutheran Pietists first promulgated the ideal of universal literacy, and literacy campaigns spread rapidly through the Protestant world.". positive as well as negative impacts of the new religion on African people and on the position of African women through the characters present in the selected novels. The pain of having one's land expropriated is a wound that is not easily healed. According to Hinchcliff (1968:87), Lovedale provided general education for black and white pupils, education that was aimed at ensuring that the pupils better understood one another. Walshe (1991:30) ably shows how ANC leaders drew on Christian values in the struggle for equality and justice in general. [ Links ], Pieterse, HJC.2001. There are other spiritual movements though. Referring to the contribution of mainline churches to education, Gifford writes: "[they] have a long and important history in Africa, and their contribution to health and education is well known. B. Sigmund Freud called Christianity an illusion, a crutch, a source of guilt and pathologies. 'God is the most Superior physician': Conqueror of witches and great restorer of health in Africa. Christian missionaries devote time, energy and billions of dollars to helping African children orphaned by the AIDS epidemic. The pandemic reached South Africa later than most of the world, but despite the delay, it has still had a wide-reaching impact on all South Africans. Another was that African tradition influenced Christianity was by the practicing of polygamy by bishops and priests of a church. Livingstone's ideas of Christianity, commerce and civilization. E-mail Citation » This text by a notable scholar of both Christianity and Islam concentrates on the religious dimensions of West African Christianity and the roles of both missionaries and Africans in its spread and development. Even though in the beginning it wasn’t acceptable for Negroes to be Christian, slave drivers made great efforts to eliminate the African culture. California: Polebridge Press. Review article. The result has been the enormous diversity of religious expressions found world-wide today from the endless variety of Hinduism to the monotheism of Judaism, Islam and Christianity and to oriental philosophies of Shinto, Taoism, a Buddhism and Confucianism. The Alexandria-based church initially used Greek, and it was not until the late 2nd century that both the liturgy and the scriptures were translated into three native languages. [ Links ], Garner, RC. Sponsored by System1 | Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis signs some may wish they saw earlier. 2010. [ Links ], Ross, E.1955. He points out that the movement, led by committed Christian ministers and church members, was greatly influenced by Christian principles and values. Christianity has done much good in Africa. As mission establishments increased, so did the need for medical services. Apartheid, as a church-supported and legislated reality, brought not only separation between the South African people but also serious and sustained oppression and suffering of the black masses in their country of birth. By the 1800s believers from Europe and America, enraged by the slave trade, began establishing Christian missions in Africa. But men left the backbreaking, labour intensive work of sowing and weeding to women. Many Christians hold that Christianity was brought to Egypt by the Apostle Saint Mark in the early part of the first century AD. Literary data concerning the history of mission in the sub-Saharan African region from the nineteenth to the early twenty first century were studied, assessed and analysed. Regarding the socio-political impact of the Christian churches in South Africa, Garner (2000:313) writes as follows: As a force of social change, the mainline churches have experienced two peaks. This influence is undoubtedly the result of the phenomenal growth of Christianity experienced in sub-Saharan Africa. For this reason, much of Africa's ways of life were frowned upon, if not totally demonised. 2000. This is an example of Christian missionary work in sub-Saharan Africa giving many of the people living in the region an opportunity to lead a meaningful life. Regeneration as espoused by Christianity constitutes something of great value. These impacts have come through many different national cultural, eco-nomic, and political channels from the West. Religion as a source of social change in the new South Africa. [ Links ], Moila, MP. Scriptural passages in the Bible pointed out that slaves must be obedient and that there is a path to freedom. I am convinced that this sample of countries represents, to some extent, the region as a whole. In this aspect, Christianity was a very good thing for the slaves to have come across. DLitt et Phil. With the medium of writing and through Christianity, Emecheta seek to educate her society and improve upon the position of the African women. Available: It is therefore not surprising that Christianity was once the primary context for a number of communities (cf. So from a Christian perspective, there are no negative results of Christianity. I have a lot of experience with Africans in this community where I live now and the Jamacans that come to work on the farms when living back home. African Affairs 93(373), 513-534. University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Katongole (2001:179) affirms this fact of remarkable expansion, an expansion which occurred despite many obstacles. Journal of Southern African Studies 23(1), 141-148. Perhaps you never heard of the "Slaves Bible" where the scriptures that told of God's love for all mankind and scriptures that forbade slavery were eliminated for the White slave masters greed and rationalization. However, attempts at marginalising the church in matters of education were doomed to fail, simply because the significance and impact of the church's contribution to education in sub-Saharan African countries were by no means insignificant. . Patheos Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! The missionary and the medical practitioner were therefore equally significant as far as the spread of Christianity was concerned. Even within the different Chris-tian missions those national forces have Daun 2000:49). New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. The impact of Dutch rule at the Cape The arrival of Dutch settlers marked the permanent settlement of Europeans in Southern Africa. Here are ten ways missions has impacted Africa. The Apostle Paul in his epistles to the Corinthians set more than a precedent for the identification of weaknesses within the Church and the calling for their correction. A decade later, in the 1940s, Dr Xuma, a Christian medical practitioner, was the ANC President. Chaplains were assigned to forts, but their role was to serve the Europeans, not to evangelize Africans. Just as the slave-traders captured Africans and brought them to the Americas, Bacon’s Sermons captured and converted many slaves to Christianity. Accessed on 2012/11/19. In South Africa, one of the first influential institutions of higher learning was, according to Hinchliff, Lovedale. Oxford University Press, 1998. Walshe (1991:28) notes that prophetic Christianity was thus "able to interact, and even to mesh, with the liberation struggle". Blaise Pascal, Isaac Newton, and Samuel Morse were scientists who held Christianity and the Bible in the highest regard. The Campaign culminated in the Sharpeville massacre of 1960 (Walshe 1991:27). Introduction | IMPACT OF COVID-19 IN AFRICA 5 SECTION 1: Introduction 3 World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, May 13, 2020. Challenging issues in African Christianity. Journal of African History 24, 241-256. The so-called non-state supported churches needed to equip its lay members with a variety of skills. Impact of Christianity on health in sub-Saharan Africa. Which means that the slaves were supposed to look to God as the master of masters. Christians don't want Muslims to rule them and Muslims are ready to kill for Allah. Newton himself, a former slave trader, came to see (after his conversion to Christ) "that since the slaves were also created in the image of God, the slave trade was wrong in itself, and could not be humanized. Christianity frowns at such practices and warns its members never to partake in them. Christianity without God. The missionaries themselves, however, insisted that education had to be coordinated with religion, given the moral value of Christian education. 2005. impact and influence of pentecostalism in Nigeria, as a contribution towards a renewed Christianity today. By 1863, Lovedale was already training blacksmiths, carpenters, printers, bookbinders, teachers and missionaries (Hinchliff 1968:87). This was the time of the Defiance Campaign, launched in 1952; the Campaign made its mark on 26 June of the same year in Port Elizabeth, when the harbours, the city and everything came to a total halt. 2017-08-04 - On 17 August 2016 an article titled, “The Damning Effects Of Religion In Africa,” written by Kofi Asamoah Okyere was published on … (Bacon 211 - 214). The following tells part of the story of this impact. STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA 1 Social impact of COVID-19 (Wave 3): Mobility, Migration, and Education in South Africa, Report 00-80-04 1. Crying in the wilderness: the struggle for justice in South Africa, edited and introduced by John Webster. People saw that converting slaves to Christianity was a way to control them; but for the slaves, what began negatively would eventually come to benefit them. This is the area in which Christianity experienced phenomenal growth, particularly in the twentieth century. Christian involvement in African education also spread to higher education. In the same vein, many Christian scholars have predicted that by the twentieth century, Christianity's centre of gravity shall shift southwards. This religion has had a profound effect on the social and political development of modern Africa. Definition of "sub-Saharan Africa". (Bacon 209-210). History of Education Quarterly 11(3), 249-264. Challenge 59, 26-27. U.S. missionaries have been especially influential in Africa. The article further describes the impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa in terms of education, socio-politics, and health; here I shall base my remarks on the history of Christian missions in the region since the late nineteen century. The body of Christ represents the essence of unity. Request PDF | On Feb 1, 2013, Matsobane J Manala published The impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Word and World XX(I), 17-21. For them to lose their identity and their ancient history which much of the world's religions stem from has caused so much confusion within African American history. Patheos Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! Unsurprisingly, therefore, literacy rates were higher in those areas where Christianity was stronger (cf. Brief Account of ATR and Christianity: African Traditional Religion (ATR) Man’s search for God has led to many pathways. Definition of "impact". Cilliers (2013:1) refers to three principles, and takes human dignity as his point of departure: "first, human dignity hinges on the embracing of the 'other,' while human indignity results from the exclusion of the 'other'; second: human dignity is given in the reversal of traditional relationships; and third, human dignity has sacramental dimensions, while human indignity is anti-sacramental". The White Slave owner gave a "basterized" version of the scriptures and called it truth. Not the one modern day christians will lead you to believe who looks blonde hair and blue eyes. Van Klinken (2010:447) describes the Church, in the footsteps of African theologians, as the body of Christ, and claims: "As a metaphor for the church, the body of Christ suggests an interconnectedness of churches and Christians globally. Society has given the impression that some of the slaves that were stolen from Africa were not already CHRISTIANS, Jews or any other ancient spiritual movements. The Explosion of Christianity in Africa. It toyed with the slaves’ hope of freedom and made them believe that if they worked well, and were obedient, that they would be rewarded in the afterlife. Woodberry & Shah (2004:52) rightly note: "Nonstate churches were especially prominent in training women, then commonly excluded from much of life outside the home." However, the responsibility for the educational task also resided with commercial bodies. Today, HIV infection and AIDS are particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Historical evidence suggests that Protestant missionaries and their backers initiated these British reforms, which were not only generally humane but aided prosperity. 3) Duty and behavior toward fellow servants. South Africa is however a democratic country in which freedom of speech is guaranteed. Christianity was undoubtedly the religion created by those who conquered african nations. 40 harmful effects of Christianity. It is clear that those who had tasted good and equal church education would be nostalgic for that education in a country dominated by hostile, apartheid ideology. He used his interpretation of Christian beliefs to justify slavery. In African thought, good health is regarded as equal to life itself (Moila 2002:21; Osei 2003:168), which is why health is among the highest aspirations of black Africans. A. Karl Marx termed Christianity an opiate of the masses, a tool of exploitation. You seem to have a good spirit which also allows different points of views to be shared without condemnation. . It was Christian beliefs that ‘justified’ and led slaveholders to their actions. Van Klinken (2010:446) rightly says: "In present day sub-Saharan Africa, the HIV epidemic is one of the most disruptive social experiences on the continent." The percentage is much higher in countries south of the Sahara: Over 60 percent of Ghana's 19 million people are Christian; 65 percent of Cameroonians are Christians. As negative as all these impacts of the missionaries undoubtedly were for the African pupils, the long-term consequences are arguably as serious. Accessed on 2012/12/10. The essence of Xhosa spirituality and the nuisance of cultural imperialism, (Hidden presences in the spirituality of the Eastern Cape and the impact of Christianity on them). Yet, African Americans resisted very little to conversion; it was only a matter of time before the slaves began to assume Christian identities. Religion. As a result of this, many African converts to Christianity began forming their own churches and breaking away from the European churches. I shall briefly describe the key words used, after which I shall highlight the phenomenal growth of Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by a description of the impact of Christianity in the areas of education, socio-political life, and health. I shall also point out that Christianity initiated medical advances that improved the health of those who live in the region. Pg. [ Links ], Gifford, P. 2008. It was extremely enlightening and challenging. 2000. Saint Mark's first convert in Alexandria was Anianus, a shoemaker who later was consecrated a bishop and became Patriarch of Alexandria after Saint Mark's martyrdom. “The Invisible Institution.” Slave Religion. Such socialisation drove women to passivity and quiescence in congregational worship, thus perpetuating discrimination against women in the Christian church. This continues, even intensifies. International Journal of Public Theology 4, 446-465. "You [slaves] must love God." This limited selection of topics was the result of both time and space constraints. London: Penguin Books. Accessed on 2012/12/10. One of the reasons why most of the missionary attempts failed in Nigeria was because of the way missionaries presented Christianity. I wish to profusely thank the College Research Committee for funding me to attend this conference. For example, in the film Man, God and Africa, the wedding ceremony at the end of the film is very similar to Christian wedding ceremonies in the US culture. Christianity is targeted by critics of colonialism because the tenets of the religion were used to justify the actions of the colonists. The task of fighting against or opposing the slave trade was indeed the work of those filled with the Holy Spirit. According to Nkomazana (1998:45), the question of Christian justice featured prominently in Livingstone's view of missionary activities. Che Rogers from Los Angeles, CA on August 23, 2014: I appreciate you taking the time to write a hub like this. 2004. Christianity in Africa arrived in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century. Evidence for this age comes in the form of the oldest Biblical papyri discovered in remote regions of Upper Egypt. The mission of the church today in the light of global history. Section three is concerned with the ways in which Christian beliefs influenced colonial policies on the environment. Although Daun (2000:37) sees a possible parity in the role of the two partners in the establishment and development of western formal education in sub-Saharan Africa, the role of missionaries seemed to be motivated by a deeper commitment and sense of true loyalty to the Almighty God; their commitment to mass education therefore exceeded that of the traders (see Frankema 2012:2). Definition of Christianity. John Newton's words to Wilberforce, encouraging him to remain in Parliament, are particularly interesting in that they point to and affirm Newton's concern for both religious and civil matters. The African Americans were able to take what they heard and converse about the good things about Christianity had to offer them. [ Links ], Barret, DB. In 313 Constantine ended official persecution in the Roman Empire and in 380 Theodosius 1 recognized it as the state religion. Mark the Evangelist made history in the year 43 when he became the first bishop to serve in the Orthodox Church of Alexandria. International Review of Mission 59(233), 39-54. It wasn’t until the Great Awakening of the 1740’s that we saw appreciable mass conversion of black American’s. Christopher Wanamaker (author) from Arizona on August 23, 2014: Thank you reading my article. Two thousand years later, Christian presence has left indelible marks on the continent—some positive, some less so. [ Links ], Daun, H. 2000. Guinea (Conakry) under Sékou Touré (1961-1984) took a very harsh line towards Christian missions; at the time of Sékou Touré's death in 1984, only the Catholic and Anglican churches were tolerated" (Gifford 1994:517). Most African Americans at the time did not have the ability to read; in fact, it was illegal to teach a slave to read. 2018. Practical Theology in South Africa 20(2), 53-71. He also argued that the source of the problem in Eastern Cape was not the wickedness of the Xhosa, but that both the Boers and British farmers had taken their land." He left the trade, became friend with the great evangelists George Whitfield (1714-1770 and John Wesley (1703-1791) and his brother Charles (1707-1788), became a minister and testified to King George III (1738-1820) about the atrocities of the slave trade" (Sarfati 2007:122). Woodberry & Shah (2004:55) make the following remarks: "Missionaries and their supporters were the main lobbyists for the immediate abolition of slavery and other forms of forced labor in the colonies, and were also often in the front rank of opposition to the officially sanctioned opium trade, the violent excesses of some colonial officials, and the tendency of European settlers to expropriate native land." Journal of Religion in Africa XXX(3), 310-343. Under the influence of Christianity, education, personal responsibility, personal morality and individual freedom are all improving. “Turner’s rebelliousness was nurtured by his sense of divine calling.” (Williams 323). By the mid-1980s, then, prophetic Christians were playing a significant role in exposing the illegitimacy of the South African government and in empowering the liberation movement. This caused led to a serious identity crisis for many Africans, a crisis that resulted in African self-hatred and self-denigration. In order for Christianity to make significant progress in its evangelisation activities, African people's literacy and numeracy had to improve drastically. The words "effect", "power", "impression" and "influence" are the essence of the term "impact". For logistical reasons, in this article I focused on the impact of Christianity on the three spheres of life specifically: education, socio-political life and health. Bacon stated that there were four main duties that the slaves must adhere to: 1) Duty and Behavior toward God. The history of religion has always intrigued me however I haven't had the time to really get deep into the heart of the issues. The South African Council of Churches and opposition political parties castigated the President for his statements, statements which displayed gross disregard for the role of Christian churches in the liberation of South Africa. I’d like to talk to you about the effects of Islam upon Christianity. 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